COVID-19 VACCINE CANDIDATES TILL NOW BY WHO

CORONA VIRUS VACCINE–AN URGENT NEED

THANKS TO THE COVID WARRIORS & TIRELESSLY WORKING THE GREAT SCIENTISTS FOR THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO SOCIETY........🙏🙏🙏🙏

     

The Total No. of vaccine candidates & their phases are as follows…

1.      PRECLINICAL STAGE

2         PHASE I

3.              PHASE II

4.              PHASE III

5.              APPROVAL

 

 

               Researchers around the world are developing more than 145 vaccines against the coronavirus and 21 vaccines are in human trials. Vaccines typically require years of research and testing before reaching the clinic, but scientists are racing to produce a safe and effective vaccine by next year.

             Work began in January with the deciphering of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The first vaccine safety trials in humans started in March, but the road ahead remains uncertain. Some trials will fail, and others may end without a clear result. But a few may succeed in stimulating the immune system to produce effective antibodies against the virus.

 

                Here is the status of all the vaccines that have reached trials in humans, along with a selection of promising vaccines still being tested in cells or animals.

 

    

 

  PRECLINICAL TESTING

  PHASE I SAFETY TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to a small number of people to test safety and dosage as well as to confirm that it stimulates the immune system.

  PHASE II EXPANDED TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to hundreds of people split into groups, such as children and the elderly, to see if the vaccine acts differently in them. These trials further test the vaccine’s safety and ability to stimulate the immune system.

  PHASE III EFFICACY TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to thousands of people and wait to see how many become infected, compared with volunteers who received a placebo. These trials can determine if the vaccine protects against the coronavirus.

  APPROVAL: Regulators in each country review the trial results and decide whether to approve the vaccine or not. During a pandemic, a vaccine may receive emergency use authorization before getting formal approval.

  WARP SPEED

  COMBINED PHASES

 



TYPES OF VACCINE

 1. Genetic Vaccines


'Vaccines that use one or more of the coronavirus’s own genes to provoke an             immune response.'


 

PHASE II



PHASE I



BioNTech has entered into collaborations with Pfizer, based in New York, and the Chinese drug maker Fosun Pharma to develop their mRNA vaccine. On July 1, they announced that all the volunteers for their Phase I/II trial produced antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, while some experienced moderate side effects such as sleep disturbances and sore arms. In an interview, Pfizer’s CEO 


PHASE I


Imperial College London researchers have developed a Morningside Ventures to manufacture and distribute the vaccine through a new company called VacEquity Global Health. The researchers expect to know if the vaccine is effective by the 


PHASE I


Zydus Cadila has created a DNA-based vaccine. On July 3 they 


PHASE I


AnGes Osaka University and Takara Bio.


PHASE I


Inovio 


PHASE I


CureVac to 


PHASE I


Genexine started testing the safety of a DNA-based vaccine in June. They anticipate moving to Phase II trials in the fall.


PHASE I


Academy of Military Medical SciencesSuzhou Abogen Biosciences, and Walvax Biotechnology announced they would start their country’s first safety trials on an mRNA-based vaccine, called ARCoV. Earlier studies on monkeys 


PRECLINICAL


Sanofi is developing an mRNA vaccine in partnership with Translate Bio. On June 23, they announced they were planning Phase I trials in the fall.

 

 

 

 

 

2. Viral Vector Vaccines

Vaccines that use a virus to deliver coronavirus genes into cells and provoke an immune response.




PHASE II



AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford is based on a chimpanzee adenovirus called ChAdOx1. The vaccine is in a Phase II/III trial in England and Phase III trials in Brazil and South Africa. The project may deliver emergency vaccines by October. In June, AstraZeneca said their total manufacturing capacity stands at two billion doses.


PHASE II




The Chinese company CanSino Biologics developed a vaccine based on an adenovirus called Ad5, in partnership with the Institute of Biology at the country’s Academy of Military Medical Sciences. In May, they 





Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston are testing an Johnson & Johnson announced in June that they would start Phase I/II trials in late July.




Novartis will manufacture a vaccine based on a Massachusetts Eye and Ear Hospital. A virus called an adeno-associated virus delivers coronavirus gene fragments into cells. Phase I trials are set to begin in late 2020.

PRECLINICAL


Merck announced in May it would develop a vaccine from vesicular stomatitis viruses, the same approach it successfully used to produce the only approved vaccine for Ebola. The company is partnering with IAVI.

PRECLINICAL


Merck is also working with Themis Bioscience, an Austrian firm it is acquiring, to develop a second vaccine, which will use the measles virus to carry genetic material into patients’ cells.



Vaxart’s vaccine is an oral tablet containing an adenovirus that delivers coronavirus genes. They are preparing for Phase I trials this summer.

 

 

3. Protein-Based Vaccines

Vaccines that use a coronavirus protein or a protein fragment to provoke an immune response.


 

 

PHASE I


Novavax has developed a way to stick proteins onto microscopic particles. They’ve created vaccines for a number of different diseases using this platform, and their flu vaccine finished Phase III trials in March. The company launched trials for a Covid-19 vaccine in May, and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations has invested $384 million in the vaccine. On July 6, Novavax announced a U.S. government award of 





Clover Biopharmaceuticals has developed a vaccine containing a protein from coronaviruses. To further stimulate the immune system, the vaccine is being given in conjunction with so-called adjuvants made by British drugmaker GSK and the American company Dynavax



Anhui Zhifei Longcom began Phase I trials in China for a vaccine that is a combination of viral proteins and an adjuvant that stimulates the immune system. The company is part of Chongqing Zhifei Biological Products and has partnered with the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.



Vaxine launched a Phase I trial in July. Their vaccine combines viral proteins with an adjuvant that stimulates immune cells.



edicago uses plants to make vaccines. They inject genes into leaves, causing the plant cells to create protein shells that mimic viruses. In July, Medicago announced they would begin Phase I trials on a plant-based Covid-19 vaccine in combination with adjuvants from drug makers GSK and Dynavax.



Baylor College of Medicine researchers began developing a vaccine that could prevent a new outbreak. Despite promising early results, support for the research disappeared. Because the coronaviruses that cause SARS and Covid-19 are very similar, the researchers are reviving the project in partnership with the Texas Children’s Hospital.



University of Pittsburgh, called PittCoVacc, is a skin patch tipped with 400 tiny needles made of sugar. When placed on the skin, the needles dissolve and deliver virus proteins into the body.



University of Queensland delivers viral proteins altered to draw a stronger immune response. In June, the university and the company CSL announced a partnership to start Phase I trials, which could lead to millions of doses a year starting in 2021. GSK is providing an adjuvant to further stimulate the immune system.

PRECLINICAL


Sanofi is developing a vaccine based on viral proteins. They are producing proteins with engineered viruses that grow inside insect cells. GSK will supplement these proteins with adjuvants that stimulate the immune system. Sanofi has said it could produce at least 600 million doses a year if the vaccine succeeds in trials.

 

 

 

4. Whole-Virus Vaccines

Vaccines that use a weakened or inactivated version of the coronavirus to provoke an immune response.


 

 

PHASE III


Sinopharm 



Sinovac Biotech is testing an inactivated vaccine called CoronaVac. In June the company announced that Phase I/II trials on 743 volunteers found no severe adverse effects and produced an immune response. Sinovac then 



Institute of Medical Biology at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, which has invented vaccines for polio and hepatitis A, started a Phase II trial of an inactivated virus vaccine in June.


PHASE I





In collaboration with the 

 


5. Repurposed Vaccines

Vaccines already in use for other diseases that may also protect against Covid-19.




The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine was developed in the early 1900s as a protection against tuberculosis. The Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Australia is 


For a pdf list of all vaccine candidates click here

THANK YOU

For more details click here

Susanta Kumar Rout (Editor)

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